2023 NECO Civic Education Objective & Essay Questions and Answers Without Charge

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Date: Thursday, 20th July 2023
Subject: Civic Education (Objective & Essay)







Answer 4 Questions in All, 2 From Each Section




A Constitution is the fundamental and supreme set of laws that establishes the basis for a country's governance and legal system. It outlines the organization of the government, enshrines the rights and duties of citizens, and provides the framework for the operation of different institutions. Constitutions can be either written or unwritten and are intended to ensure stability, maintain order, and safeguard the rights and freedoms of citizens.


Choose any four of the following key features of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution:

(i) Federalism: The 1999 Constitution of Nigeria establishes the country as a federal republic, comprising 36 states and one Federal Capital Territory (FCT). It divides powers between the central (federal) government and state governments, defining their respective areas of authority. Certain matters, such as defense, foreign affairs, and currency, are under the exclusive purview of the federal government, while other issues, such as education and health, fall under the states' jurisdiction.

(ii) Separation of Powers: The Constitution upholds the principle of separation of powers, creating three distinct branches of government: the Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary. Each branch has specific functions and responsibilities to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. This system ensures checks and balances, enhancing accountability and preventing abuses of power.

(iii) Fundamental Human Rights: The 1999 Constitution includes a dedicated chapter on Fundamental Human Rights, guaranteeing various rights and freedoms to Nigerian citizens. These rights encompass civil, political, economic, social, and cultural aspects. Some of the rights protected include the right to life, freedom of speech and expression, the right to education, and protection from discrimination. Citizens have the right to seek legal recourse through the courts if their rights are violated.

(iv) Bicameral Legislature: Nigeria's National Assembly, the country's legislative body, operates on a bicameral system, comprising two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states, with each state having three senators, while the House of Representatives represents constituencies based on population. The bicameral system allows for more thorough deliberations on proposed legislation and ensures representation for various groups and regions within the country.

(v) Executive Powers: The President of Nigeria serves as the head of state, head of government, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is elected through a popular vote and can serve a maximum of two four-year terms. Their responsibilities include executing and implementing laws, formulating policies, and appointing members of the federal executive council.

(vi) Judicial Independence: The Constitution establishes an independent judiciary in Nigeria. The judiciary holds the power of judicial review, enabling it to interpret the Constitution and declare laws and government actions unconstitutional if they violate its provisions. This independence is vital for upholding the rule of law and safeguarding the rights of citizens.

Number 2 


Choose any Five (5) of the following strategies to promote national unity in the Nigerian education system:

(i) Standardized National Curriculum: A standardized national curriculum ensures that students across different regions of Nigeria are taught similar subjects, topics, and values. This fosters a sense of shared identity and purpose among students from diverse backgrounds.

(ii) Inclusive Education Policies: Implementing inclusive education policies that accommodate students with diverse abilities, backgrounds, and learning styles fosters an environment of acceptance and understanding. When students from various backgrounds learn together, it promotes unity and breaks down barriers.

(iii) Multilingual Education: Nigeria is linguistically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken across the country. Promoting multilingual education by teaching indigenous languages alongside the official languages (English and others) helps preserve cultural heritage and encourages respect for different linguistic groups.

(iv) National Integration Programs: The Nigerian education system can implement national integration programs that bring students from different states and regions together for cultural exchanges, sports events, and academic competitions. These initiatives help students interact, learn about each other's cultures, and build friendships.

(v) Civic Education: Incorporating civic education in the curriculum helps students understand their rights, responsibilities, and duties as Nigerian citizens. It promotes patriotism, national consciousness, and a sense of ownership in building a strong and united nation.

(vi) Teacher Training and Sensitization: Providing teachers with training on multicultural education and sensitivity can equip them to create inclusive classrooms where diversity is celebrated and respected. Teachers play a crucial role in nurturing a sense of national unity among students.

(vii) National Symbols and Celebrations: Celebrating national holidays, displaying national symbols, and promoting the singing of the national anthem in schools instills a sense of pride and belonging to the nation. These activities emphasize common values and shared history.




Choose any five (5) of the following benefits of youth empowerment in Nigeria:

(i) Reduced Unemployment: Empowering young individuals with relevant skills and knowledge makes them more employable in various sectors of the economy. As more young people gain employment or create their businesses, the overall unemployment rate in the country decreases.

(ii) Economic Growth and Innovation: Empowered youth are more likely to engage in entrepreneurial activities and start new ventures. These initiatives can lead to innovation, increased productivity, and economic growth, contributing to Nigeria's overall economic development.

(iii) Poverty Alleviation: With increased access to skill development and entrepreneurship training, young people can generate income and lift themselves and their families out of poverty. Empowering youth to become financially independent helps reduce poverty levels in the country.

(iv) Social Stability: When young people have access to skill development and meaningful employment opportunities, they are less likely to engage in criminal activities or participate in social unrest. Youth empowerment fosters social stability and harmony within communities.

(v) Human Capital Development: Investing in youth empowerment skills enhances the country's human capital. A skilled and knowledgeable young population can contribute to the country's productivity and competitiveness in the global market.

(vi) Youth Participation in Decision-Making: Empowered youth are more likely to participate in civic and political activities. They become active citizens who engage in community development, advocate for their rights, and contribute to policy formulation and implementation.

(vii) Technology Advancement and Digitalization: Equipping Nigerian youth with digital and technological skills empowers them to leverage technology for various purposes, including education, entrepreneurship, and communication. This can drive technological advancements and digitalization across different sectors of the economy.



Orderliness is defined as a conscious action achieved through an organized, thoughtful, serene, diligent, and systematic manner towards achieving specified goals by following laid down procedures, principles, standards, or rules. It serves as a cornerstone for the development of any society.


(i) Obedience to traffic lights, rules, and regulations: As simple as this may look, obeying traffic lights can prevent unnecessary deaths. In societies where traffic lights are absent, road accidents have resulted in more fatalities. Adhering to traffic lights and following the instructions of constituted road management officials encourages easy and safe movement for motorists.

(ii) Queueing in an orderly manner: Queueing is essential for achieving orderliness when a large number of people require services provided by a few individuals or machines. Waiting for one's turn through a queue is a practical way to maintain order. Examples of places where queuing is required include Automated Teller Machine (ATM) points, petrol stations, and bus stations.

(iii) Organized protests by pressure groups: Organized and orderly protests can bring attention to important issues and drive positive change. However, maintaining decorum and orderliness during protests is crucial to prevent violence and protect innocent lives. Instances like the EndSars protest, which was initially organized and orderly, ended tragically with the loss of innocent lives when disrupted by the Nigerian military.

(iv) Observing decorum in learning environments and other appropriate places: Decorum is vital in learning environments and organizations to allow students and staff to focus fully on their tasks. In academic settings, decorum may be observed in the form of maintaining silence during lectures, following appropriate seating arrangements, and respecting the learning process. Similarly, decorum is essential within offices and workplaces to promote a professional atmosphere and enhance productivity.




Civic education is the process of educating individuals on their rights, responsibilities, and duties as citizens of a particular country. It helps individuals understand how their actions can impact their community and the country as a whole.

(i) Promotes active citizenship: Civic education helps individuals become active and responsible citizens who are knowledgeable about their rights and responsibilities as well as the importance of participating in civic activities and community development.

(ii) Encourages political participation: Civic education empowers individuals to understand the political process, the importance of voting, and engaging in political activities to influence decision-making and contribute to the governance of their country.

(iii) Enhances critical thinking skills: Civic education encourages individuals to think critically about social issues, analyze information from different sources, and form well-informed opinions, leading to better decision-making.

(iv) Fosters social cohesion: Civic education promotes respect for diversity and understanding among individuals from different backgrounds, encouraging cooperation and collaboration to achieve common goals, thus fostering social cohesion.

(v) Ensures accountability and transparency: By educating citizens about their rights to demand accountability from leaders and public officials, civic education plays a significant role in ensuring transparency in governance.




The rule of law is a fundamental principle that refers to the idea that everyone, including the government, is subject to the law and that no one is above the law. It ensures that laws are applied equally to all individuals and that the legal system is fair and transparent.

(i) Protects individual rights: The rule of law ensures that everyone is equal before the law, and their rights are protected, preventing arbitrary actions and discrimination.

(ii) Promotes social stability: It provides a framework for resolving disputes and conflicts in a peaceful manner, which promotes social stability and prevents violence and chaos.

(iii) Encourages economic growth: A predictable and fair legal environment provided by the rule of law encourages investment, entrepreneurship, and economic growth.

(iv) Prevents abuse of power: The rule of law ensures that those in power are held accountable for their actions, preventing abuses of power and corruption.

(i) Independent judiciary: Having an independent judiciary that is free from political influence is crucial to uphold the rule of law and ensure fair and impartial administration of justice.

(ii) Access to justice: Ensuring that everyone has equal access to legal representation and a fair trial, regardless of their social status or financial means, is essential for upholding the rule of law and promoting justice for all.

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