2023 NECO Government (OBJ & Essay) Questions and Answers

Get NECO June/july 2023 Free Government (Govt) Question and Answer 
Welcome to the 2023  NECO Government (GOVT) Question and Answer Room. Here, we are pleased to provide you with free access to the Government (Objectives and Theory) Questions and Answers for your upcoming NECO examination. We understand the importance of thorough preparation, and our goal is to assist you in achieving success.






(1a) Define a state
(1b) Explain five attributes of a state

(2) Explain six factors that can determine the electoral success of a political party

(3) Give and explain six techniques employed by pressure groups to achieve their goals 

(4) Suggest six measures that can be put in place to make civil service non-partisan


(5) Elucidate six characters of military rule

(6) Evaluate six consequences of the action group crisis of 1962

(7) State and discuss six factors that influence Nigerian foreign policy

(8) In six ways, justify the existence of Nigeria as a member of the common wealth of nation

(9a) Define federation
(9bi) Advance five importance of state creation in a federation

(10) Mention and explain six duties performed by the executive officers of hausa/fulani pre-colonial administration.



 Pick any six of your choice

1. Develop a code of conduct that outlines expectations for civil servants to remain non-partisan in their work.

2. Establish a clear policy that prohibits civil servants from engaging in partisan activities while on duty.

3. Require civil servants to take an oath of impartiality when they enter office.

4. Prohibit civil servants from publicly expressing their political views or affiliations.

5. Require civil servants to attend mandatory training on non-partisanship and ethical conduct.

6. Monitor and enforce compliance with the code of conduct and other policies related to non-partisanship.

7. Provide incentives for civil servants to remain non-partisan in their work, such as bonuses or awards.

8. Establish an independent oversight body to investigate allegations of partisan conduct by civil servants.

9. Ensure that civil servants are not appointed to positions based on their political affiliations.

10. Encourage civil servants to engage in nonpartisan community activities, such as volunteering or mentoring.


(i)Historical Ties: Nigeria's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations can be justified based on historical ties. The Commonwealth provides a platform for maintaining connections and cooperation with other countries that were also once part of the British Empire.

(ii)Shared Values: Nigeria's membership in the Commonwealth is based on shared values such as democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and good governance. The Commonwealth serves as a forum where member countries can collaborate on upholding and promoting these values.

(iii)Economic Cooperation: Nigeria benefits from economic cooperation within the Commonwealth. Membership provides opportunities for trade, investment, and economic partnerships with other member countries. 

(iv)Development Assistance: Nigeria can access development assistance and support from the Commonwealth and its member countries. This assistance can be in the form of financial aid, technical expertise, and capacity-building programs .

(v)Cultural Exchange: The Commonwealth offers a platform for cultural exchange and cooperation among member countries. Nigeria's membership allows for the sharing of cultural experiences, traditions, and knowledge with other nations

(vi)Diplomatic Relations: Membership in the Commonwealth enhances Nigeria's diplomatic relations and global standing. It provides opportunities for engagement in multilateral diplomacy, participation in Commonwealth summits, and networking

(vii)Collaboration on Global Issues: Nigeria can collaborate with other Commonwealth members on global issues such as climate change, security, peacekeeping, and health. The Commonwealth can serve as a platform for joint efforts, sharing best practices, and addressing common challenges.

(viii)Youth Empowerment and Education: The Commonwealth offers programs and initiatives focused on youth empowerment, education, and leadership development. Nigeria's membership provides opportunities for Nigerian youth to engage in exchange programs, educational scholarships etc


(a) Federalism is a system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central government and several regional governments. It is a system of shared power between a central government and the states. 

(b) PICK ANY 5

1. Clear Division of Power: Federalism allows for a clear division of power between the central government and the states. This ensures that no one branch of government becomes too powerful. 

2. Checks and Balances: Federalism provides a system of checks and balances between the central government and the states, which helps to prevent any one branch of government from becoming too powerful. 

3. Increased Representation: Federalism allows for increased representation in government. By dividing power between the central government and the states, citizens are better able to have their voices heard. 

4. Increased Autonomy: Federalism gives states the autonomy to make their own decisions without the interference of the central government. This allows states to make decisions that are best suited to their own individual needs. 

5. Increased Efficiency: Federalism allows for increased efficiency in government. By dividing power between the central government and the states, government tasks can be completed more quickly and efficiently. 

6. Increased Flexibility: Federalism allows for increased flexibility in government. By dividing power between the central government and the states, government policies can be adapted to changing circumstances more easily. 

7. Increased Adaptability: Federalism allows for increased adaptability in government. By dividing power between the central government and the states, government policies can be adapted to changing circumstances more quickly and easily.


(i)Emir/Sarkin: The Emir or Sarkin, as the highest-ranking executive officer, had several duties. They maintained law and order, ensured the administration of justice, and protected the interests of the community. 

(ii)District Heads/Wakilin Sarki: District heads, known as Wakilin Sarki, were responsible for the effective governance of their respective districts. They implemented the policies and regulations set by the Emir, collected taxes, maintained security, and oversaw local government administration. 

(iii)Court Officials: Court officials played significant roles in the administration of justice. The Wazirin, Galadiman, and Madaki were executive officers who advised the Emir, presided over court proceedings, and ensured the fair and equitable resolution of disputes. 

(iv)Military Commanders: Military commanders, such as the Dan Masanin, held executive positions in matters of defense and security. They organized and led military forces, protected the community from external threats, and maintained internal peace.

(v)Military Commanders: Military commanders, such as the Dan Masanin, held executive positions in matters of defense and security. They organized and led military forces, protected the community from external threats, and maintained internal peace.

(vi)Advisers and Counselors: Executive officers in the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration included advisers and counselors who provided expertise and guidance to the Emir. These individuals had specialized knowledge in areas such as religion, law, diplomacy, and administration. 

(vii)Village/Local Chiefs: Village or local chiefs, known as Hakimi, acted as executive officers at the grassroots level. They oversaw the governance of their respective villages or communities.

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Table of Contents
On the 13th of July, 2023, we are offering free live access to the Government (GOVT) OBJ and Theory Questions and Answers. This opportunity allows you to familiarize yourself with the exam format and gain valuable insights into the topics that will be covered. By accessing this content, you can enhance your understanding and boost your confidence before the actual exam.

Our team of experts has curated a comprehensive set of questions and answers that align with the NECO syllabus for Government. We have taken into consideration the key concepts, theories, and principles that you need to master in order to excel in your examination. Our aim is to provide you with accurate and reliable information to aid your preparation.


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Remember, success is achieved through diligent preparation and consistent effort. Make the most of this chance to access free Government (Objectives and Theory) Questions and Answers. 

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1. Factors that Determine the Electoral Success of a Political Party in a Democratic Society

In a democratic society, the electoral success of a political party depends on various factors. These factors can significantly influence the outcome of an election and ultimately determine whether a party will win or lose. The following are some key factors to consider:

a) Party Platform and Policies: The party's platform and policies play a crucial role in attracting voters. A political party that presents a clear and compelling vision for the future, along with well-defined policies, is more likely to gain support from the electorate. Voters want to see how a party's agenda aligns with their interests and aspirations.

b) Leadership and Candidate Appeal: The charisma, credibility, and competence of party leaders and candidates can greatly impact electoral success. A strong, persuasive leader who can connect with the voters and inspire confidence is more likely to gain their support. Candidates who possess relevant experience, expertise, and a genuine commitment to public service also tend to attract voters.

c) Public Perception and Image: The public's perception of a political party and its members can influence electoral outcomes. Parties that are seen as trustworthy, ethical, and responsive to the needs and concerns of the people are more likely to gain public support. Conversely, parties associated with corruption, scandal, or incompetence may struggle to win elections.

d) Party Organization and Campaign Strategy: The effectiveness of a party's organization and its campaign strategy can significantly impact electoral success. A well-organized party with a strong grassroots network, efficient mobilization of resources, and effective communication strategies can reach and engage a wider voter base. An effective campaign strategy that effectively targets key demographics and utilizes various campaigning tools can also make a difference.

2. Challenges Hindering the Effectiveness of the Civil Service in a Political System

The civil service plays a crucial role in the functioning of a political system. However, there are several challenges that can hinder its effectiveness. These challenges include:

a) Political Interference: One of the major challenges faced by the civil service is political interference. When politicians exert undue influence over the civil service, it compromises the impartiality and professionalism of civil servants. Political interference can lead to the prioritization of political interests over the public interest and hinder the efficient delivery of services.

b) Lack of Autonomy and Independence: The effectiveness of the civil service is often compromised when it lacks autonomy and independence. Civil servants should be able to perform their duties without fear of political reprisal or favoritism. When civil servants are subjected to political pressure or interference, it can undermine their ability to make objective decisions and implement policies effectively.

c) Bureaucratic Red Tape: Excessive bureaucracy and red tape can hinder the effectiveness of the civil service. Lengthy and cumbersome administrative procedures can slow down decision-making processes and impede the delivery of services. Streamlining administrative processes and reducing unnecessary bureaucratic hurdles can enhance the efficiency of the civil service.

d) Lack of Training and Professional Development: The civil service requires well-trained and skilled professionals to effectively carry out their roles. However, the lack of adequate training and professional development opportunities can hinder their effectiveness. Investing in continuous training and development programs can equip civil servants with the necessary skills and knowledge to perform their duties efficiently.

e) Corruption and Nepotism: Corruption and nepotism within the civil service can seriously undermine its effectiveness. When public officials engage in corrupt practices or favoritism, it erodes public trust and confidence in the civil service. Implementing robust anti-corruption measures and promoting transparency and accountability can help address these challenges.

f) Insufficient Resources: Insufficient resources, including funding, infrastructure, and staffing, can hinder the effectiveness of the civil service. When the civil service is understaffed or lacks the necessary resources to fulfill its responsibilities, it can lead to delays, inefficiencies, and a decline in service quality. Adequate resource allocation is essential to ensure the effectiveness of the civil service.

In conclusion, addressing the factors that determine the electoral success of a political party, understanding the challenges hindering the effectiveness of the civil service, and recognizing the conditions necessary for the observance of the rule of law in a democratic state are all crucial aspects of building a strong and functioning democracy. By considering and addressing these factors, challenges, and conditions, societies can strive towards greater democratic governance.

NECO OBJ & Essay – Government – 2:00pm – 4:40pm

We now have the full questions and answers with us now.

2021 NECO Government   Question and Answers (Obj)

Verified Govt Obj


1)It is written down and usually signed by those who oversaw the document being drafted and undertake to follow same.
2)Rights are clearly mentioned so that people who are governed by rules contained in same, know their entitlement.

3)Minimum expectations from leaders as well as people are listed so that they may, with passing time, be updated.
4)Promises are made to be fulfilled in future which past have rendered necessary yet difficult, even impossible.

5)Certain areas maintaining status quo are marked out so that like above mentioned promises, they may be worked upon.

6)Method of determining issues related to nationality, socio economic equity and welfare are set out. These are inflexible, usually.
1)Supreme headquarters : Sokoto and Gwandu were the seats of the Emirs. The Emir of Gwandu controlled the western empire while the Emir of Sokoto controlled the eastern empire.

2)District administration : Each emirate was divided into districts for administrative convenience. An official known as Hakimi was usually appointed to
the Emir to administer the district.

3)Village heads : Village heads were appointed by Haikimi to help in the collection of taxes, e.g. cattle tax (Jangali).
4)Legislative functions : Islamic laws were the supreme laws of the emirate.

5)Executive functions : The emir was authoritarian and had absolute powers even though he had a body of advisers, yet he can ignore or accept their advice.

6)Judicial functions: The judicial administration was based on Sharia laws. The laws were administered by Alkali judges.

7)Centralized administration : The emirate system was a highly centralized one with the Emirs possessing almost all the powers. He was an authoritarian ruler.
1)The independence constitution provided for a democratic parliamentary system of government whereby the office of the head of State is different from the office of the head of government.

2)A federal system of government was retained.
3)Queen Elizabeth was still the Head of state, Nnamdi Azikwe, the Governor – General, was a ceremonial Head of State representing the Queen until October 1st1963 when Nigeria became a republican State.

4)The prime minister was the Head of government and administration {Tafawa Balewa}.

5)The constitution provided for a bi-cameral legislature at the center, the Senate (upper house) and House of Representatives ( lower house).

6)The constitution provided a premier as the Head of the executive of each region.
1)The Role of Equity Legislation
Sometimes, the law do seems to be inconsistent with some of the laws. In other words, laws could be ambitious, that is to say that the laws are silent, and in such cases, it is incumbent on the Judge to bring in his wisdom.

2)Judiciary Protects People’s Rights
The judiciary is vested with the power of safeguarding the rights of the Nigerian citizenry.

That is its supreme responsibility as the third organ of government. In the case, where th…

9) (i) Appointment of the Executive Secretary: It is the body that appoints the Executive Secretary for the organisation.

(ii) Decision-Making: It is the highest decision making body.

(iii) Regional economy: It discusses issues pertaining to the economy of the sub-region.

(iv) Recommendations: It approves the recommendations of the council of ministers

(v) Treaties and agreements: It approves all agreements and treaties entered into by the community.

(vi) Amendment of the charter: It approves prosposals initiated for the amendment of the charter establishing the community.

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E4073 & E4072 GOVERNMENT 2 hours 40 minutes

NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL Senior School Certificate Examination

2 hours 40 minutes GOVERNMENT PAPERS UI & II

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3. At the top right section of this document, kindly write your Name and Examination Number in the provided spaces.

By following these guidelines, you will contribute to a smooth and fair examination process. Remember, your focus and dedication are key to achieving your desired results. Good luck!

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FAQs About The 2023 NECO Government Questions and Answers

1. What is the NECO Government exam?

The NECO Government exam is an examination conducted by the National Examination Council (NECO) in Nigeria. It is designed to assess the knowledge and understanding of students in the field of government and governance.

2. Who is eligible to take the NECO Government exam?

Any student who is currently enrolled in a Nigerian secondary school and has completed the required coursework in government is eligible to take the NECO Government exam.

3. How can I register for the NECO Government exam?

To register for the NECO Government exam, you need to obtain a registration form from your school. Fill out the form accurately and submit it along with the required registration fee within the specified deadline.

4. What is the format of the NECO Government exam?

The NECO Government exam consists of both multiple-choice questions and essay-type questions. The multiple-choice section tests your knowledge of key concepts and theories, while the essay section assesses your ability to analyze and critically evaluate government-related issues.

5. How long is the duration of the NECO Government exam?

The NECO Government exam typically lasts for three hours. During this time, you are expected to answer all the questions within the allocated time for each section.

6. What topics are covered in the NECO Government exam?

The NECO Government exam covers a wide range of topics, including the structure and functions of government, political ideologies, electoral systems, public administration, international relations, and human rights.

7. How can I prepare for the NECO Government exam?

To prepare for the NECO Government exam, it is recommended that you review your class notes, textbooks, and past question papers. You can also seek guidance from your teachers and participate in study groups to enhance your understanding of the subject.

8. Are there any recommended study materials for the NECO Government exam?

While there are no specific recommended study materials for the NECO Government exam, it is advisable to use textbooks that cover the syllabus prescribed by the NECO board. Additionally, you can access online resources and reference books to supplement your study material.

9. How is the NECO Government exam graded?

The NECO Government exam is graded based on a predetermined marking scheme. Each question carries a specific number of marks, and the total marks obtained are used to determine the final grade.

10. When will the results of the NECO Government exam be released?

The exact date for the release of the NECO Government exam results may vary each year. However, the NECO board usually announces the results within a few weeks after the completion of the exam. Students can check their results online or obtain their result slips from their respective schools.

11. Can I use my NECO Government exam result for university admission?

Yes, the NECO Government exam result can be used for university admission in Nigeria. However, it is essential to check the specific admission requirements of the university you intend to apply to, as each institution may have its own criteria for acceptance.

12. What should I do if I have a complaint or issue regarding the NECO Government exam?

If you have any complaints or issues regarding the NECO Government exam, you should contact the NECO board directly. They have a designated department that handles such matters and will provide you with the necessary guidance and assistance.

These are some of the frequently asked questions about the 2023 NECO Government exam. For more information and specific details, it is recommended to visit the official NECO website or consult your school authorities.

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