Waec 2018 Geography OBJ & Theory/Essay QUESTION AND ANSWERS Free Expo is out.

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1a)-Manufacturing industries creates employment thereby reduces the rate of employment
- Manufacturing industries helps underdeveloped countries to enjoy a favorable balance of trade with their trading partners: As a country exports manufactured goods, it earns foreign exchange
- Manufacturing industries helps developing countries to diversify their economy : Most of these countries rely heavily on agriculture Alone. Some rely on main mineral Alone for example Nigeria relies very heavily on oil

- Making relevant products: manufacturing industries in-tropical Africa create an environment where the products created for it populace are made with a proper understanding of their needs.
- Job creation: With vast youth unemployment in the tropical Africa , manufacturing is one of the only sectors next to agriculture that can create a significant amount of jobs for the currently unemployed in these areas.
- Participation in the global economy:
Unlike other countries that have strong manufacturing
sectors, tropical Africa countries is limited in its participation in the global economy.

- inadequate capital;
- poor management;
- shortage of raw materials;
- poor infrastructure

I)the north Atlantic route
ii)the Panama central route
iii)trans Pacific trade route
iv)the south Atlantic route
I)it help in the transportation of goods and materials at chesper and safer means
ii)national and international trade water transportation enhance trade between two or more countries and also between two regions
iii)it enhance access to national resources through transportation in different natural resources are discover of the nationa
iv)generationals of revenue water transportation generate revenue through obtaining license from the government of it nations
i)river should be dredged regular
ii)ship should be equipped with refrigerated holds
iii)water weeds should be put under permanent controls
iv)construction of canals to by pass water falls and cataract

(i) Land use: Traditional farms are very small usually only 1 to 3 hectares. The goods produced on these small farming units is used mainly for consumption of the family. The consumption survival considerations dominate the commercial ones.
(ii) Labour: Labour used per hectare tends to be high in traditional farming. Mostly the family labour works on the subsistence farms.
(iii) Productivity and efficiency: The subsistence farming or traditional farms are characterized by low of inputs which are mostly provided by the farmer himself . For example seeds, cow dung manure etc are not purchased by the farmers. Yields per hectare, production per person and overall productivity tend to be low.
(iv) Income and level of living: The income and level of living of the subsistence farmers is mostly below poverty line.

(i) Provision of basic needs of the family like food and clothing
(ii) It does not require too much plots of land to cultivate.
(iii) Low capital is required to carry out subsistence farming.
(iv) It does not require the hiring of labour.

(i) No surplus for sale to earn income. All produce are consumed by the family.
(ii) Family labour supply is unreliable because they are not paid for job done.
(iii) Fragmentation or small farmland is available because lands are owned communally and usually shared among family members regardless of whether they are interested in farming or not


Movement of goods and services
-Movement of people
-Development of tourism
-Opening up new lands and areas
-Generation of revenue

-It is very costly to build and maintain railways
-Railway transport is relatively slow in some other areas
-Railway network is generally poor.


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